From what I'm finding on googlebooks (the museums aren't giving many hits), corduroy pants are appropriate for a boy in very humble circumstances, and a jacket of corduroy may also be appropriate, particularly at the earlier end of your time frame.
Example (The Boy Tar
by Mayne Reid, 1872, fictional memoir): Around my arms and shoulders I wore a garment familiarly known as a "cord jacket"--a roundabout of corduroy cloth, such as boys in the humbler ranks of life use to wear, or did when I was a boy. It was my every-day suit and after my poor mother's death it had come to be my Sunday wear as well. Let us say nothing to disparage this jacket. I have since then been generally a well-dressed man and have worn broadcloth of the finest that West-of England looms could produce; but all the wardrobe I ever had would not in one bundle weigh as much in my estimation as that corduroy jacket. I think I may say that I owe my life to it.
Well the jacket chanced to have a good row of buttons upon it--not the common horn, or bone, or flimsy lead ones, such as are worn nowadays, but good substantial metal buttons--as big as a shilling every way, and with strong iron eyes in them. Well was it for me they were so good and strong.
My uncle never did me a greater favor in his life--though I did not think so at the time--than when he made me wear an ugly corduroy jacket that was "miles too big" for me
Scissors and Yardstick (1872) mentions corduroy as being appropriate for pants only, and describes it as a type of fustian. https://books.google.com/books?id=GEkyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA128&dq=corduroy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Nt-ZVLHIKo3koAS38IGgBA&ved=0CFoQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=corduroy&f=false
Most of the hits for "fustian" associate it with the very poor; this reference from the New York City Almshouse (1852) mentions jackets, pants, vests, and sacques made of fustian: https://books.google.com/books?id=VFtDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA175&dq=fustian,+boy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=VtmZVKrfCIT3oAT9sYDwDg&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=fustian%2C%20boy&f=false
I've also found an 1858 reference which mentions fustian and corduroy as typical workingmen's attire: https://books.google.com/books?id=ZQUFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA34&dq=corduroy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rteZVO7WGomWoQSo7IDgAg&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBDgU#v=onepage&q=corduroy&f=false
And a 1877 reference (Dictionary of Americanisms), which calls corduroy a type of ribbed velvet (in explaining the meaning of 'corduroy roads', which make up the vast majority of references I'm finding between 1840-1880). https://books.google.com/books?id=n8MRAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA146&dq=corduroy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rteZVO7WGomWoQSo7IDgAg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=corduroy&f=false
And an 1852 (Scottish) reference which mentions a pair of cotton corduroy breeches in connection to a murder trial https://books.google.com/books?id=HSpTAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA101&dq=corduroy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rteZVO7WGomWoQSo7IDgAg&ved=0CFgQ6AEwCDgU#v=onepage&q=corduroy&f=false
Historic New England has corduroy pants, a waistcoat and a bonnet around 1850, but no pictures: http://www.historicnewengland.org/collections-archives-exhibitions/collections-access/results?action=%2Fcollections-archives-exhibitions%2Fcollections-access%2Fresults&search=corduroy&category=clothing-and-accessories&preserve-filters=1